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  • Writer's pictureValinda

Milk Matters: Which Plant-Based Milk is best for the Environment

Updated: Feb 19

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In a world where environmental consciousness is on the rise, making sustainable choices has never been more important. From reducing our carbon footprint to protecting natural resources, every decision we make can have a profound impact on the planet. As the demand for dairy alternatives continues to soar, plant-based milk has emerged as a popular and environmentally-friendly choice. But with a multitude of options available, which plant-based milk truly reigns supreme when it comes to treading lightly on the Earth? Join us as we delve into the realm of plant-based milks and uncover the answer to the burning question: Which plant-based milk is truly the best for the environment?

What is Wrong with Dairy

Behind the enchanting imagery of dairy farms lies a complex reality that demands our attention. While it's true that advancements in breeding practices have made individual cows more efficient, reducing their planetary footprint, the undeniable truth is that the demand for dairy has skyrocketed over the past few decades. In fact, the increase in demand has surpassed the gains in efficiency, resulting in an overall escalation of the industry's impact on the environment. The remarkable progress made at the individual cow level is overshadowed by the staggering growth in consumption. As consumers, it is crucial to recognize this disparity and explore the implications it has for our planet.

Which Plant-Based Milk is best for the Environment

Greenhouse gas emission

In the urgent global battle against climate change, few industries have garnered as much attention for their significant contribution to greenhouse gas emissions as the dairy industry. How could a seemingly innocuous glass of milk or slice of cheese be responsible for such environmental harm? The answer lies in the delicate digestive systems of cows, the very beings that are the cornerstone of this industry. As cows digest their food, they release a substantial amount of methane, a potent greenhouse gas that is over 80 times more warming power compared to carbon dioxide. It's not just the cows' belching and flatulence that contribute to this issue; it's also the vast amounts of manure they produce. The decomposition of this manure releases additional methane, exacerbating the industry's impact on our warming planet. The truth is, the dairy industry's greenhouse gas emissions are pushing our planet closer to the brink of irreversible climate catastrophe. The time for awareness, action, and sustainable alternatives has never been more pressing. It's time to confront the inconvenient truth and explore the environmental impact of the dairy industry's greenhouse gas emissions, shedding light on the urgent need for change.

Which Plant-Based Milk is best for the Environment - almond milk

Land Use

Imagine the vast expanse of land needed to support the insatiable appetite of the dairy industry. It's not just about providing enough space for cows to live; it goes much further than that. Cows require food, and that food needs to be grown somewhere, requiring even more land. The process doesn't stop there. The food needs to be processed and transported to dairy farms, adding to the carbon dioxide emissions associated with dairy production. The staggering land use of the dairy industry paints a stark picture of its environmental impact.

Close your eyes and envision the transformation of once vibrant landscapes into sprawling dairy farms, where diverse ecosystems are replaced by monotonous expanses. The destruction of forests, the loss of habitats, and the devastating blow to biodiversity cannot be ignored. Deforestation not only deprives the Earth of vital carbon-sequestering trees but also disrupts delicate ecosystems, displaces wildlife, and accelerates soil erosion. The consequences ripple far beyond the land, leaving a profound impact on the interconnected web of life.

Overall, 1 Liter of milk requires about 9m2 of land for the animal to live and for food.

Water Use

Dive into the enigmatic realm of water, where the far-reaching consequences of the dairy industry's unquenchable thirst unfold. From the moment water is extracted for various purposes in dairy operations – from irrigating crops to nourish the animals to providing hydration and maintaining hygiene – the strain on our already depleted water supplies becomes alarmingly evident. Rivers once teeming with life run dry, aquifers dwindle, and delicate wetlands wither away, succumbing to the relentless demands of this industry. The toll on aquatic ecosystems is profound, as the intricate balance of marine life is disrupted and water sources become contaminated. It's a vivid reminder that our choices as consumers extend far beyond our immediate surroundings, as the repercussions of the dairy industry's land and water use reverberate throughout the natural world.

Additionally, as water is used in dairy operations, it eventually returns to nature. Inadequately treated wastewater, containing high levels of pollutants resulting from poor design, operation, or treatment systems, poses significant environmental problems when discharged.

Depending the calculation methods, 1 liter of milk requires over 1000 liters of water to create so it's time to confront the environmental implications of water use in the dairy industry and seek sustainable alternatives that prioritize the conservation and protection of this vital resource.

chopped tree


In order to meet the soaring demand for dairy products, vast tracts of land, once adorned with thriving forests and teeming with biodiversity, are mercilessly cleared to make way for sprawling dairy farms. The animal agriculture industry is responsible for about 90% of global deforestation. This widespread deforestation not only robs the Earth of its carbon-sequestering trees but also disrupts intricate ecological balances, displaces countless species, and drives biodiversity to the brink. The consequences ripple through the natural world, affecting everything from soil health and water cycles to climate stability and the overall health of the planet.

The loss of these precious ecosystems goes beyond the immediate destruction of trees; it dismantles entire habitats, disrupts critical food chains, and eradicates the homes of countless plant and animal species. As the chainsaws echo through the forest, the complex web of life that relies on these ecosystems is unravelled, leaving a void that cannot easily be filled. With every bite of cheese, sip of milk, or dollop of butter, we unwittingly contribute to this environmental tragedy.

But we can also be agents of change. It's time to confront the harsh reality and reimagine our relationship with dairy, seeking sustainable alternatives that not only satisfy our palates but also protect our forests and preserve the rich tapestry of life they harbor.

Soy Milk

When it comes to making sustainable choices for our health and the environment, plant-based milk has emerged as a popular alternative to traditional dairy. Among the array of options available, soy milk is a great option for plant-based milks. Derived from soybeans, this creamy beverage has gained traction for its versatility and nutritional benefits.

How is it made

It all begins with soybeans, which are carefully selected and soaked overnight to soften them. Next, the beans undergo a meticulous grinding process to create a smooth paste. This paste is then mixed with water and heated to extract the liquid, resulting in a creamy, plant-based milk that is rich in protein and essential nutrients.

Which Plant-Based Milk is best for the Environment

Carbon footprint

When compared to dairy milk, soy milk boasts a significantly lower carbon footprint of about 1kg CO2 per 1 liter of soy milk. The production of soy milk involves fewer greenhouse gas emissions, including methane and nitrous oxide, which are major contributors to global warming. Additionally, soybeans, the primary ingredient in soy milk, have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers that emit greenhouse gases during their production.

Water use

Soy milk requires about 28 Liter of water for 1 liter of soy milk which is significantly less water compared to dairy. Soybeans, the primary ingredient in soy milk, are relatively resilient and can thrive with less water compared to other crops. This means that choosing soy milk over dairy milk can help conserve precious water resources, mitigating the strain on water supplies in regions where water scarcity is a pressing issue.

soy milk

Land use

Soy is an awesome crop because they are legumes meaning they can fix nitrogen in the soil reducing the requirement for nitrogen fertilizers.

What sets soy milk apart from its plant-based counterparts in terms of environmental impact? Land use efficiency is undoubtedly a key factor, as soybeans, are remarkably adept at making the most of available land. They need about 0,7 m2 for the soybeans needed for 1 liter of soy milk. Compared to other plant-based milk sources like almonds or oats, soybeans require significantly less land, making them a sustainable choice in a world grappling with limited land resources and the imperative to preserve natural habitats.

However, it's important to delve into the complexities of soybean production. While soybeans may excel in land efficiency, a major drawback arises from the prevalent practice of monocropping. Year after year, the same crop is grown on the same land, leading to several issues. Though soybeans may require less nitrogen fertilizer due to their ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, they do rely on phosphorus fertilizers. Unfortunately, these fertilizers are connected to chemical runoff, which contributes to the creation of dead zones in water bodies. Dead zones are areas where oxygen levels are extremely low or nonexistent, rendering them uninhabitable for fish and other marine life. To curb the growth of these dead zones, farming practices must undergo significant changes, including regulating fertilizer usage, implementing crop rotation, or reducing the demand for soy through decreased consumption of animal products.

In considering the overall environmental impact, soy milk remains a commendable alternative to animal milk. However, it is essential to be mindful of the fertilizer requirements involved. Opting for organic soy can help mitigate these concerns, as organic farming practices minimize synthetic fertilizer usage and prioritize sustainable approaches. By making informed choices, we can embrace soy milk as a sustainable option while working towards a future where farming practices align with the well-being of our ecosystems.

Oat Milk

Get ready to discover a plant-based delight that has taken the world by storm: oat milk. As the creamy, dairy-free alternative that has captured the hearts and taste buds of millions, oat milk has quickly become a beloved staple in kitchens and coffee shops alike. But what exactly makes oat milk so special? Beyond its velvety texture and subtle sweetness, oat milk offers a host of enticing qualities that make it a standout in the realm of plant-based milks. From its sustainable production methods and minimal environmental footprint to its versatility in culinary creations, oat milk is more than just a trendy beverage – it's a game-changer.

How it is made

The journey of oat milk begins with harvesting oats, a resilient crop that requires minimal water and fertilizer compared to other grains. Once harvested, the oats are processed, cleaned, and finely milled into a flour-like consistency. This oat flour is then mixed with water and blended to create a smooth liquid. The mixture undergoes a process called enzymatic hydrolysis, where enzymes break down the oats' starches into simpler sugars, resulting in a sweeter taste and smoother texture. Afterward, the mixture is strained to remove any solids, resulting in the silky oat milk we know and love.

Which Plant-Based Milk is best for the Environment

Carbon footprint

Compared to dairy milk, oat milk boasts an impressively lower carbon footprint (0,9kg per liter of oat milk), making it a front-runner in the race to protect our planet. The production of oat milk requires considerably less land and water resources compared to dairy farming, resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, the process of transforming oats into milk generates significantly fewer emissions compared to other plant-based alternatives, such as almond or soy milk.

Water use

Oat milk not only has a low carbon footprint it also has a remarkably low water footprint. Compared to the water-intensive processes involved in almond milk production, oat milk requires significantly less water (48 Liters per Liter of oat milk). This is because oats are a resilient crop that can thrive with minimal irrigation, relying predominantly on rainfall. As we confront the global water crisis and the strain on our freshwater resources, choosing a milk alternative with a reduced water footprint becomes an imperative. Oat milk not only offers a delicious and versatile dairy substitute but also showcases its commitment to sustainable water stewardship.

oat meal

Land use

Also the land use (0,8 m2 per liter) of oats is much lower compared to its counterparts like soy and almond milk. Oats, being a versatile and resilient crop, can thrive in diverse regions, even in colder climates. This adaptability makes oat milk a smart choice for those seeking a sustainable alternative. Moreover, oat cultivation often involves crop rotation, a practice that fosters soil health and reduces reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. As if that weren't impressive enough, oats have another environmentally-friendly trick up their sleeves - they are adept at sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, contributing to the fight against climate change. While oat milk is not without its flaws, such as potential contamination with glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, choosing organic oat milk can help mitigate this concern.

Almond Milk

Imagine a creamy, luscious beverage that not only tantalizes your taste buds but also boasts a lower environmental footprint. Enter almond milk, the rising star in the world of plant-based milks. Derived from nutrient-rich almonds, this dairy alternative has captured the hearts and palates of countless individuals seeking a more sustainable choice. But does almond milk truly live up to its eco-friendly reputation? As we delve into the realm of plant-based milks and explore their environmental impact, it's time to shine a spotlight on almond milk.

How is it Made

It all begins with the humble almond, plucked from orchards bathed in golden sunlight. After harvesting, these nuts are carefully processed, with their outer shells removed to reveal the precious kernels within. These kernels, brimming with flavor and nutrients, are then ground and blended with water to create a smooth, creamy liquid. But the process doesn't stop there. Almond milk undergoes a meticulous straining process to remove any remaining solids, resulting in the silky consistency we know and love.

Which Plant-Based Milk is best for the Environment

Carbon Footprint

As we sip on a glass of creamy almond milk, it's easy to overlook the intricate journey and environmental implications behind this popular plant-based beverage. Almond trees, the source of this nutty elixir, heavily rely on honeybee pollination. However, the transportation and well-being of these essential pollinators raise valid concerns. Almonds themselves are predominantly grown in specific regions, meaning that your almond milk often embarks on a long-distance journey to reach your kitchen. This transportation contributes to carbon emissions and raises questions about the sustainability of our almond milk choices.

Because almond trees can store lots of carbon dioxide, the carbon footprint of almond milk remains rather low at about 0,7kg per 1 liter of almond milk.

Water Use

The production of almonds, primarily concentrated in drought-prone regions such as California, demands an astonishing amount of water for irrigation. In fact, California, responsible for 80% of the world's almond production, faces a significant challenge as it grapples with ongoing drought issues. The irony becomes apparent when we consider that it takes approximately 12 liters of water to produce a single almond. This intensive water usage places an immense strain on already stressed water resources, worsening the environmental toll caused by almond cultivation.

The almond industry's reputation for voracious water consumption, especially in regions susceptible to drought, cannot be ignored. For a single glass of almond milk, a staggering 74 liters (370 liter per liter of almond milk) of water are required—an eye-opening contrast to other plant-based milk options. This insatiable thirst of almond trees intensifies the strain on already depleted water sources, exacerbating concerns of water scarcity and leaving ecosystems that rely on these waterways vulnerable.

almond milk

Land Use

When it comes to plant-based milk alternatives, almond milk has emerged as a popular choice among health-conscious consumers. However, peeling back the layers of its environmental impact reveals a surprising concern: land use. Almond milk production requires vast expanses of land dedicated to almond orchards, particularly in warm regions in California or the Mediterranean. The demand for almonds has skyrocketed in recent years, leading to a rapid expansion of almond orchards, often at the expense of other valuable ecosystems. This large-scale monoculture can have detrimental effects on biodiversity, as it replaces diverse habitats with a single crop. But even with the increase in demand, each individual almond tree can produce lots of almonds for a lot of almond milk. 1 liter of almond milk only needs 0,5m2 meaning it is one of the most area-efficient crops on the list.

Rice Milk

Derived from soaked and blended rice grains, rice milk is a subtly sweet milk alternative that has gained popularity among those seeking a dairy-free lifestyle. But what sets rice milk apart when it comes to environmental impact? From its cultivation and water usage to its carbon footprint and overall sustainability, let's delve into the realm of rice milk and discover how it measures up against other plant-based milk alternatives.

How is it made

The journey begins with rice grains, carefully selected for their quality and nutritional value. These grains are soaked in water, allowing them to soften and become more pliable. Next comes the blending stage, where the softened rice is mixed with water to create a smooth, creamy texture. This mixture is then strained to remove any remaining solids, resulting in a silky, lactose-free beverage.

Which Plant-Based Milk is best for the Environment

Carbon footprint

Rice cultivation, particularly in flooded paddies, releases significant amounts of methane, a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. The flooded fields create an anaerobic environment where rice plants emit methane during their growth cycle. The production and processing of rice milk also require substantial energy inputs, further adding to its carbon emissions. Rice causes about 1,2 kg of CO2 for every liter of rice milk made. The carbon footprint of rice milk serves as a reminder that even seemingly benign alternatives can leave a sizable ecological footprint.

Water use

Rice cultivation, a process that demands copious amounts of water, sets the stage for the production of rice milk. Paddies, those iconic flooded fields where rice thrives, soak up an astonishing five times (270 Liter) more water compared to soy or oats. This excessive water usage not only raises eyebrows but also triggers concerns about water scarcity, particularly in regions already struggling with limited resources. Yet, the water challenge is not the only hurdle rice milk faces. Picture the lush rice fields, standing tall with their feet submerged in water. While this saturated environment fosters rice production, it comes at a cost. Bacteria breeding in these waterlogged fields release a potent greenhouse gas: methane. Methane packs a staggering punch, possessing over 80 times the warming power of carbon dioxide. As we sip on rice milk, it's essential to acknowledge the trade-off between water usage and greenhouse gas emissions. The combination of methane production and high water demand is precisely why some environmentally conscious individuals opt to steer clear of rice milk.

Land use

Even though rice cultivation requires extensive amounts of land, each plant produces large amounts of yield. This results in rice needed the least amount of land area (0,3m2) for the production of 1 liter of plant based milk.

Which Plant-Based Milk is best for the Environment


In the quest for a sustainable and environmentally-friendly alternative to dairy milk, we have explored the complexities surrounding different plant-based milk options. Each option presents its own set of advantages and considerations. From the greenhouse gas emissions of the dairy industry to the water use implications of almond milk, we have shed light on the environmental impacts of our choices. While there is no definitive answer to which plant-based milk is best for the environment, it is clear that conscious decision-making and understanding the trade-offs are paramount. Whether it's oat milk, soy milk, or other alternatives, it's essential to consider factors such as water usage, land use, transportation, and overall sustainability. By making informed choices, supporting local and sustainable practices, and reducing our carbon footprint, we can contribute to a greener future.

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Meet Valinda

Hi there, I am the founder of the green and happy mom blog and green and happy shop. After battling severe depression, I am determined to make the world a little better and I want to take you along that journey with me. 

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