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  • Writer's pictureValinda

Is Styrofoam Recyclable - The Truth about Polystyrene Foam

Updated: Jan 29

In the age of heightened environmental consciousness, the quest for sustainable practices and eco-friendly choices has become more critical than ever. One ubiquitous item that frequently finds its way into our daily lives, yet poses a significant environmental challenge, is styrofoam. Often used for its insulating properties and lightweight nature, styrofoam has garnered attention for its adverse impact on the planet. In this blog post, we embark on an exploration into the recyclability of styrofoam, unraveling the complexities and shedding light on whether this widely-used material can truly find a second life through recycling.


Understanding Styrofoam

In the realm of everyday convenience, one material stands out for its lightweight versatility — styrofoam. Whether in packaging, disposable containers, or insulation, styrofoam has become a ubiquitous part of modern life. However, its prevalence raises questions about its composition, environmental impact, and potential for recycling. In this brief exploration, we aim to unravel the mysteries surrounding styrofoam, shedding light on its properties, uses, and the environmental considerations that come with its widespread adoption.

bird eating styrofoam

What is Styrofoam

Styrofoam, also known as polystyrene foam, stands out as a lightweight and waterproof packaging material crafted from the chemical compound styrene. Its exceptional properties make it an excellent choice for packaging. Its lightweight nature ensures that it adds minimal weight to the overall packaging, providing effective protection against bumps and drops. This quality proves advantageous for manufacturers, allowing them to safeguard their products without incurring excessive delivery costs. Another notable benefit is its waterproof nature, preventing the absorption of water and facilitating its easy runoff. This feature reduces the risk of mold growth, especially in humid environments, enhancing the preservation of packaged items. However, the downside emerges when considering the molded shapes of Styrofoam, often tailored precisely to the contours of products.


The Origen of Styrofoam

Styrofoam was invented back to the early 1940s, and we find ourselves at Dow's Chemical Physics Lab, where a serendipitous discovery unfolded. Researchers stumbled upon a groundbreaking method for creating foam from polystyrene, giving birth to what we now know as Styrofoam.

This newfound process was not only unique but also yielded a material that proved to be both versatile and cost-effective. The trademark of Styrofoam eventually found a home with DuPont, a renowned name synonymous with innovation in the field of material science. Under DuPont's ownership, the trademark solidified Styrofoam's position in the market, making it the preferred choice for a myriad of applications.

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How is Styrofoam made

Embarking on the journey of understanding how styrofoam is made reveals a captivating process that transforms basic materials into the lightweight wonder we encounter so often in our daily lives.

Formation of Polystyrene Beads:

  • Small spherical beads, typically 0.5-1.5mm in diameter, serve as the starting point for foamed polystyrene, also known as expanded polystyrene (EPS).

  • These beads contain an expanding agent, pentane, and are heated with steam. As the expanding agent boils, the beads soften and expand up to forty times their original size.

  • After cooling, the expanded beads undergo a second heating process within molds designed for specific shapes, such as Styrofoam cups, cartons, and wig stands. The beads fill the molds and fuse together, creating the final product, Styrofoam, which is approximately 95% air.

Raw Materials:

  • The main component of expanded polystyrene is styrene (C8 H8), derived from petroleum or natural gas through a reaction between ethylene (C2 H4) and benzene (C6 H6).

  • Styrene is polymerized using heat or initiators like benzoyl peroxide to form EPS.

Cell Formation and Blowing Agents:

  • To achieve the low-density, loosely attached cells characteristic of EPS, polystyrene must first be suspended in water, forming droplets.

  • A suspension agent is added to prevent droplets from sticking together, and blowing agents like propane, pentane, methylene chloride, and chlorofluorocarbons are used to make the beads expand.

Manufacturing Process for Small-cell EPS:

  • Beads are melted, a blowing agent is added, and the beads are extruded to achieve the desired density.

  • For smooth-skinned EPS, beads are pre-expanded, heated, cooled, and then fed into molds.

Making Expanded Polystyrene Foam:

  • Pre-expanded beads undergo pre-expansion, followed by aging for at least 24 hours to cool and harden.

  • Beads are fed into molds, and low-pressure steam is injected to expand and fuse them together. The mold is then cooled.

Making Extruded, Expanded Polystyrene Foam:

  • EPS with a small cell size, suitable for insulation boards, is produced by melting beads, adding a blowing agent, and extruding the molten polystyrene into the desired shape.

Cutting, Bonding, and Coating:

  • EPS can be cut using sharp woodworking tools and bonded with adhesives such as water-based, phenolics, epoxies, resorcinols, and ureas.

  • Coatings like epoxy, various paints, and nonflammable substances are applied to enhance resistance to weathering and sunlight, as well as to address flammability concerns.


styrofoam production - is styrofoam recyclable
The Production Process of Styrofoam

Why is Styrofoam Bad?

Styrofoam, despite its ubiquitous presence in our daily lives, harbors a dark side that poses significant environmental concerns.

  • Environmental Persistence: Styrofoam, derived from petroleum-based polystyrene, takes centuries to decompose, contributing to long-lasting environmental pollution.

  • Chemical Release: The production of Styrofoam involves the release of harmful chemicals, including styrene, which poses potential health risks to both humans and wildlife.

  • Poor Disposal Impact: Improper disposal of Styrofoam exacerbates environmental issues, as it doesn't easily decompose and can persist in landfills, water bodies, and ecosystems, posing threats to wildlife.

  • Landfill Space: 2.3 million tons of Styrofoam finding its way into landfills, constituting approximately 30% of global landfill space.

  • Light Weight: Styrofoams lightweight makes it a potential litter problem as it is easily blown away (out of landfills).

  • Carbon Emmission Costs: Social cost of carbon dioxide produced during the production of styrofoam is $220 per ton of CO2

  • Non-Biodegradable: The non-biodegradable nature of Styrofoam adds to the global waste crisis, emphasizing the urgent need to reassess its use and explore sustainable alternatives for a healthier planet.


Is Styrofoam Toxic?

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have both disclosed findings suggesting limited evidence that styrene may be carcinogenic for both humans and experimental animals. As a result, the IARC has classified styrene under Group 2B, indicating it as a possible human carcinogen. This classification underscores the need for continued research and vigilance regarding the potential health risks associated with styrene exposure.


Styrene is absorbed into the body following oral or inhalation exposure. Employees involved in the production of styrene polymers, exposed to concentrations generally below 1 ppm over periods ranging from 1 to 36 years, exhibited low erythrocyte counts and changes in liver enzyme profiles, as documented by ATSDR in 1992.


Polystyrene is made from benzene and styrene, both of which have been shown to be carcinogenic compounds; occupational exposure to these compounds carries increased risk of cancer for Styrene plant workers.

styrofoam production - is styrofoam recyclable

Can you Microwave Styrofoam Food Containers?

While styrofoam holds FDA approval as a food-grade material, it's essential to note that it should not be used in microwave ovens. Despite its approval, styrofoam breaks down under heat. The presence of styrene in food primarily results from the migration, or leaching, of residual styrene monomer found in polystyrene foam containers. This risk becomes even greater at higher temperatures and into foods higher in fat content.


Styrofoam containers with a designated microwave-safe label can be used to microwave foods or beverages safely. Typically located on the bottom of such containers, the microwave-safe label indicates that these specific styrofoam items have undergone testing for microwave use.


Despite the assurance of safety for microwaving styrofoam labeled as microwave-safe, it is still advisable to opt for alternative containers not made from styrofoam whenever possible. This cautious approach ensures that potential risks associated with styrofoam, even in microwave-safe varieties, are minimized in food and beverage heating applications.


styrofoam peanuts - is styrofoam recyclable

Recycling Styrofoam

While Styrofoam is technically 100% recyclable, it cannot be placed in outdoor and commercial recycling bins. Recycling Styrofoam is limited to specific recycling centers equipped with the necessary facilities. Fortunately, there are recycling programs that accommodate Styrofoam waste. Some of these programs facilitate drop-off locations or collection events. Additionally, certain municipalities offer curbside recycling programs with specialized equipment, allowing you to include Styrofoam in the recycling bin. However, these municipalities are relatively few, emphasizing the importance of identifying recycling facilities that accept Styrofoam.


Challenges in Styrofoam Recycling

  • Limited Recycling: Despite being labeled as recycling #6 plastic and composed of polystyrene, Styrofoam faces a significant recycling challenge. A mere 1% of plastic foam is estimated to be recycled currently, contributing to its accumulation in landfills and as litter.

  • Recycling Hurdles: The very attributes that make Styrofoam appealing to consumers—lightweight nature, low cost, and durability—present obstacles to recycling. The cost of transporting lightweight Styrofoam to recycling plants is deemed economically unviable, given its relatively large volume compared to its weight. Additionally, its widespread use in the food service industry results in contamination with food residues, necessitating cleaning before recycling and adding to the economic challenges.

  • Market Challenges: While technology for recycling polystyrene exists, the market for Styrofoam recycling is small and diminishing. Many recyclers opt to send Styrofoam to landfills due to the economic challenges posed by low resale prices for polystyrene. The decline in prices is attributed to the lower production costs of new Styrofoam products compared to cleaning and reusing post-consumer products.

  • Limits of Recycling Programs: Even with advanced recycling programs, Styrofoam recycling is not a "closed-loop" system, and not all types of expanded polystyrene (EPS) are recyclable. Foam cups, for example, are not remanufactured into new foam cups but into alternative products like packing filler and cafeteria trays. Contamination with food renders Styrofoam items unusable for recycling, leading to new manufacturing and resource use for each new cup, contributing to pollution.

  • Recycling Costs: Due to the volume of styrofoam and the intense process of recycling, the costs increase to about $3000 per ton of polystyrene.

styrofoam peanuts - is styrofoam recyclable

How to find Styrofoam Recycle Near Me

Finding a Styrofoam recycling center near you can be a bit challenging, but here are some steps you can take to locate one:

  • Check Local Recycling Centers:

  • Start by checking with your local recycling center or waste management facility. They might have information on whether they accept Styrofoam for recycling.

  • Visit Municipal Websites:

  • Explore the official websites of your city or municipality. Some municipalities provide details on recycling programs, including whether they accept Styrofoam and where drop-off locations are.

  • Contact Local Environmental Groups:

  • Reach out to local environmental or recycling organizations. They may have information on Styrofoam recycling initiatives in your area.

  • Use Recycling Directories:

  • Utilize online recycling directories or search engines dedicated to waste disposal and recycling services. Websites like Earth911 or RecycleNow often have information on recycling centers.

  • Check with Local Retailers:

  • Some large retailers, especially electronics or appliance stores, may accept Styrofoam for recycling. Contact them and ask if they have a recycling program for Styrofoam.

  • Community Events:

  • Keep an eye on local community events or recycling drives. Occasionally, there might be special collection events for hard-to-recycle materials like Styrofoam.

  • Connect with Waste Management Companies:

  • Contact waste management companies in your area. They may provide information on Styrofoam recycling options or direct you to facilities that accept it.

  • Online Search:

  • Perform a targeted online search using keywords like "Styrofoam recycling in ‘your city’ " or "EPS recycling in ‘your city’." You might find specific facilities or programs catering to Styrofoam recycling.

Remember that Styrofoam recycling options vary by location, and it's essential to confirm the specific requirements and guidelines of the recycling center you choose. If all else fails, you can contact your local municipality or waste management office directly for assistance.


Alternatives to Styrofoam

As an increasing number of cities and states implement bans on styrofoam, the demand for eco-friendly alternatives is on the rise. Discover some of the best substitutes for styrofoam that you can seamlessly incorporate into your daily routines.


Biodegradable Peanuts

  • Made from non-toxic corn starch or wheat, biodegradable peanuts are an excellent replacement for styrofoam peanuts.

  • Ideal for filling voids in containers or boxes, these packing materials are compostable, making them environmentally friendly.

  • Options include static-free organic starch peanuts and peanuts that decompose in water, leaving behind no toxic waste.

  • Note: While edible, these peanuts lack nutritional value, and their main drawbacks include higher weight and manufacturing costs.

biodegradable peanuts - styrofoam alternative

Corrugated Bubble

  • A sustainable alternative to bubble wrap, corrugated bubbles are crafted from 100% recycled cardboard sourced from post-consumer and post-industrial waste.

  • Customizable options are available, and once no longer needed, it is 100% recyclable and biodegradable.


Bamboo Packaging

  • Made from bamboo pulp, similar to paper pulp, bamboo packaging boasts high mechanical strength and is resistant to tearing.

  • Businesses can utilize it for commercial purposes and add stamp printing paper or other advanced paper for a professional touch.


Crinkle Paper

  • Crinkle paper serves as an eco-friendly alternative to bubble wrap, perfect for filling voids in baskets or gift boxes.

  • Available in various colors, it's an excellent option for sustainable celebration streamers.

cirnkle paper - styrofoam alternative

Mushroom Packaging

  • Created from the vegetative part of mushroom fungus and crop waste, mushroom packaging is gaining popularity as a styrofoam substitute.

  • Large retailers, including Ikea, have embraced it due to its quick decomposition, resulting in less waste and improved recycling.


PLA-Lined Paper

  • Polylactic Acid (PLA) lined paper is a plant-based resin derived from corn starch, ideal for making compostable food containers and cup liners.

  • Resistant to water damage, it accommodates both hot and cold products and can be used in the microwave or oven.

  • Note: It may have poor heat transfer compared to styrofoam, leading to hotter surfaces.


Mineral Filled Polypropylene

  • Products made with mineral-filled polypropylene contain 50% less plastic than standard polypropylene.

  • Suitable for both hot and cold food, they reduce the reliance on plastic, but keep in mind that they are not recyclable.


In conclusion, the journey to understanding the recyclability of Styrofoam has unveiled a nuanced landscape. While Styrofoam is technically recyclable, the accessibility of recycling facilities poses a challenge for many. As we navigate the delicate balance between convenience and environmental responsibility, it's clear that concerted efforts are needed to expand Styrofoam recycling initiatives. Whether it's supporting local programs, advocating for more accessible drop-off points, or exploring alternative packaging materials, each small action contributes to a sustainable future. Let's embark on this collective endeavor, armed with newfound knowledge, to make our choices echo positively for generations to come. Remember, the impact of our decisions extends far beyond our immediate surroundings; it ripples through the environment we share and the legacy we leave.


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